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Causes For Peripheral Artery Disease

Causes for peripheral artery disease

What Are The Causes For Peripheral Artery Disease?

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) is a common circulatory condition that impacts millions of individuals worldwide. It occurs when plaque accumulates in the arteries, leading to narrowing and reduced blood flow to the extremities, typically affecting the lower part of the body (mostly the legs). The causes of PAD are not always well-defined, but numerous risk factors have been identified.


Understanding the peripheral artery disease causes is essential for early detection, prevention, and effective management of this potentially serious ailment. So, in this article, we will discuss the key factors and reasons for Peripheral Artery Disease.


How Does Peripheral Artery Disease Develop?

The body’s complex network of arteries plays a crucial role in delivering oxygen and important nutrients from the heart to every part of the body. These arteries normally maintain a smooth inner surface, ensuring the unclogged flow of blood. However, plaque can accumulate over time on the arterial walls as blood passes through them. This build-up is known as atherosclerosis. It signifies the stage of peripheral artery disease progression.


Over a long period, these deposits gradually build up and narrow the space inside the artery. This process, commonly known as “artery furring”, is also clinically known as “occlusive disease.” by healthcare professionals.


Peripheral Artery Disease refers to the blockages of arteries in the outer regions of the body, commonly observed in areas like the legs. It is important to note that if someone is diagnosed with PAD, they may simultaneously experience a similar disease affecting the brain and heart. This dual progression significantly increases their vulnerability to serious issues such as heart attacks or strokes.


Causes For Peripheral Artery Disease

The exact causes for Peripheral Artery Disease remain unknown. However, some key factors influence Peripheral Artery Disease causes. These are:


1. Smoking

Smoking is one of the primary peripheral artery disease causes, significantly increasing the risk of artery disease. It is popular among active and former smokers. By quitting smoking, individuals can slow disease progression and mitigate related complications.


2. Unhealthy Blood Lipid Levels

Unhealthful blood lipid levels, including excessive fat and cholesterol in the bloodstream, can contribute to developing Peripheral Artery Disease.


3. High Blood Pressure

Regular high blood pressure can have harmful effects on the arterial walls, which leads to the development of atheroscle­rosis. Managing blood pressure is essential to lower the risk of artery disease.


4. Diabetes And Insulin Resistance

High levels of sugar in the blood due to insulin resistance or diabetes can damage the arteries, accelerating the development of PAD.


5. High Cholesterol/ Atherosclerosis

The increasing level of cholesterol, especially the build-up of lipoprotein(LDL) cholesterol can result in the formation of plaque within the arteries. This process is known as atherosclerosis. Gradually, this plaque buildup can restrict the blood flow in the arteries and lead to the emergence of symptoms associated with peripheral artery disease.


Reasons for peripheral artery disease


6. Age above 60 years

People aged 60 years and above often experience a decline in flexibility and resilience because of aging. This makes their arteries more vulnerable to the effects of atheroscle­rosis, leading to an increased risk of developing PAD. The cumulative impact of aging on the vascular system further raises the likelihood of arterial narrowing in this age group.


7. Family History

Individuals who have a family history of vascular disease or related conditions may face an increased risk.


8. Unhealthy Food

Consuming diets that are rich in saturated fats, trans fats, and processed foods can greatly lead to the development of PAD. Such unhealthy food choices can raise cholesterol levels and cause inflammation, both of which are major factors that cause PAD. On the other hand, having a rich diet, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins, can significantly lower the risk of PAD.


9. Sedentary Lifestyle

Sitting for a long period without regular physical activity can negatively impact your circulation and cause plaque to accumulate in your arteries. To prevent the development of Peripheral Artery Disease, it is important to engage in regular exercise, as it maintains healthy blood flow and improves overall cardiovascular health, reducing the risk of this condition.


10. Chronic Kidney Disease

Kidney diseases can interrupt the balance of electrolytes and hormones, which can have implications for blood vessel health. Also, individuals with kidney disease are at a higher risk of developing atheroscle­rosis and other cardiovascular complications, thereby increasing their susceptibility to peripheral artery disease.


11. Autoimmune Disorders

Conditions like rhe­umatoid arthritis can contribute to the development of PAD by causing inflammation in the blood vessels. This chronic inflammation associated with autoimmune disorders can speed up the progression of atheroscle­rosis, resulting in narrowed arteries and reducing blood flow to the limbs.


Various diseases and conditions such as blood clots, limb injuries, homocysteine, high C-reactive protein, and metabolic syndrome­ can greatly increase the risk of PAD. It is important to recognize these risk factors to take instant measures to prevent the progression of Peripheral Artery Disease.


The presence of PAD significantly increases the risk of developing other cardiovascular conditions, including:


Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Coronary Artery Disease presents an increased risk for individuals with PAD. CAD involves the narrowing of the coronary arteries which supply blood to the heart muscle. The combination of PAD and CAD can increase the probability of experiencing heart attacks and cardiovascular events.


Cerebrovascular Disease

It is another potential risk that can be heightened by PAD. This condition specifically affects the blood vessels supplying the brain, leading to various complications such as stroke, transient ischemic attacks(TIA), and other neurological issues.


In Conclusion

There are several peripheral arterial disease causes. The primary factor is athe­rosclerosis, which occurs when plaque collects in the veins, causing blood clogging. However, effectively managing PDA requires a comprehensive strategy. This includes daily lifestyle changes, following prescribed medication, and considering surgical interventions in severe cases. This approach aims to enhance blood flow, alleviate symptoms, and minimize associated risks.


To ensure a comprehensive evaluation and personalized treatment plan, contact Advanced Medical Group. As a leading institution specializing in vascular health, we can assist you in effectively managing peripheral arterial disease and improving your overall well-being. Contact us today to schedule a consultation with us.

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Fatima Shaik MD


Fatima Shaik is a board certified internist and cardiologist. She specializes in general cardiology and heart rhythm disorders. She cares for patients at Advanced Medical Group in Jersey City and North Bergen. She also performs procedures at Jersey City Medical Center.

She completed her undergraduate education at NYU and received her MD degree for SUNY Downstate Medical Center. She completed her residency training at Mount Sinai Beth Israel Medical Center and her cardiology fellowship at New York Presbyterian Queens. She went on for advanced training in electrophysiology at Cooper Hospital in Camden, NJ.
She is trained in device implantation, SVT and atrial fibrillation ablations as well as watchman implantations.
She is fluent in English and Hindi.
She is currently accepting new patients.

Reema Parikh, DPT

Physical Therapist

Reema Parikh received two bachelor’s degrees from Long Island University and Touro College, and graduated as a Doctor of Physical Therapy from Touro College in 2013. In her early years as a DPT, she received an award for excellence in research and taught a course for the national physical therapy licensing board exam. Dr. Parikh has a passion for helping patients on their health journey; she is experienced in all ages and care of patients, ranging from pediatric care to geriatric care. She has hosted live and virtual workouts for varying levels of physical activity, incorporating mobility and strength segments. Dr. Parikh has furthered her education by receiving certifications in many aspects of physical therapy and holistic care including Nutritional PT, Restorative Yoga, Pilates, and Reiki.

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Maria Avila, NP

Nurse Practitioner

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Aishwarya Parab, PT

Physical Therapist

Aishwarya Parab received her Bachelors in Physiotherapy in India in 2015 and furthered her studies at Long Island University where she graduated with her Masters in Exercise Science, Sports, and Nutrition in 2019. She has experience working with various conditions, including herniated disks, spondylolysis, and post-operative mobility issues. Aishwarya has taken courses to expand her knowledge in the physical therapy world, including spinal mobility courses, neuromuscular reeducation courses, and getting a certificate with Revolution in Motion. Aishwarya finds it exceedingly rewarding to build a long-term relationship with her patients and shows commitment towards providing structured and effective healthcare.

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Dr. Prajakta Avhad is double board-certified in Pain Management and Anesthesiology. Dr. Avhad received her M.B.B.S. from MIMER, India, and completed her Surgical internship and Anesthesia residency at Brookdale University Hospital in Brooklyn, New York during which she interned at Memorial Sloan Kettering, St. Luke’s Roosevelt, and Staten Island Hospital.

She then completed her Pain Management Fellowship from Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

Dr. Avhad is a diplomate of the American Board of Anesthesiology and a member of the American Academy of Pain Medicine.

Dr. Avhad has been in practice in Central and South Jersey for more than 12years. She is a caring physician with expertise and experience in treating a spectrum of Pain conditions like chronic back and neck pain, herniated discs/sciatica with minimally invasive interventional procedures.

Dr. Avhad and her family reside in New Jersey. She is an avid gardener active with her kids, dog, and garden if not tending to her broad and exotic orchid collection.

Radhika Patel PA-C

Radhika Patel, PA-C

Physician Assistant located in Jersey City, NJ

About Patel
Graduating summa cum laude from Rutgers University with a BA in Biological Sciences and minor in Spanish, Radhika Patel obtained experiences in outpatient medicine as well as in emergency medical services prior to pursuing a career as a physician assistant. She graduated from the Rutgers University Physician Assistant program with a Master of Science after training in cardiology, internal medicine, and urgent care, among many other fields at various hospitals and private practices throughout the state of New Jersey. She is a proud member of the team at Advanced Garden State Cardiology and looks forward to meeting with patients each day in our Jersey City office.

Enrique D Chappilliquen Lucio, PA-C

Enrique Chappilliquen, PA-C

Physician Assistant located in Union City, NJ & Jersey City, NJ

About Dr. Chappilliquen
Graduated from Mercy College Physician Assistant Program with a Masters of Science in Physician Assistant Studies, Enrique has extensive experience in the medical field for more than 6 years.

He has clinical experience and training in internal medicine, cardiology, general and vascular surgery, hematology, oncology, and emergency medicine. He joined Dr. Richard’s practice in October of 2016. Since then, he has been a dedicated medical provider working in the Union City office and the Hematology/Oncology office in Jersey City as well.

As a Hispanic, he proudly serves his community with passion and devotion. Being able to communicate fluently with his patients allows him the opportunity to provide excellent medical care to the Hispanic community in Union City and Jersey City. Also, sharing the same language, culture, and values as his patients allows him to connect at a personal level with his patients. Enrique continues to develop his knowledge and skills constantly to continue satisfying the needs of his patients.

Dr Christopher Samaniego, DPM

Christopher Samaniego, DPM

Podiatrist located in Jersey City, NJ, Union City, NJ, and West New York, NJ

Christopher Samaniego, DPM, is originally from Freehold, New Jersey. He attended college at Messiah College, where he graduated Magna Cum Laude with a degree in Biology. He earned his podiatric medical degree from Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine in Philadelphia, PA and completed his surgical residency training at Detroit Medical Center in Detroit, MI. 

Dr. Samaniego provides comprehensive foot and ankle care at Advanced Medical Group in Jersey City, Union City, and West New York. His specialized surgical training includes

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Samaniego is a member of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons and the American Podiatric Medical Association. He keeps up to date on the latest surgical techniques and available technology in foot and ankle care.

Prior to joining Advanced Medical Group, Samaniego studied public healthcare in Zambia and assisted in providing care to the local community. He has also presented research at the annual meeting of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Samaniego achieved the highest rank of Eagle Scout through the Boy Scouts of America and volunteered with Troop 454 for scouts with special needs and the Freehold Public Library. In his free time, Samaniego volunteers with his local church community service and youth programs.

Samaniego resides in Jersey City, NJ and maintains his health by cycling and interval training several times a week. He explains, “Healthy doctors inspire healthy patients. I follow the same advice I give my patients, and I read constantly to become a better physician every day. I encourage my patients to ask questions and learn about the cause of their symptoms. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.”

Dr. Merwin Richard, MD. A cardiologist

Merwin Richard, MD

Cardiologist located in Jersey City, NJ & Union City, NJ

As an established board-certified internist and cardiologist, Merwin Richard, MD, has a reputation for helping patients with the most complex of health conditions. He cares for patients at Advanced Medical Group in West New York, Jersey City, and Union City, New Jersey.

Richard began his undergraduate education in medicine at Stanley Medical College in India. He earned his doctor of medicine degree from Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University before relocating to New York City.

After completing both his internship and internal medicine residency through the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Dr. Richard went through advanced fellowship training. He completed a cardiovascular fellowship at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, then went on to finish a second fellowship in interventional cardiology through Mount Sinai School of Medicine (now Icahn).


Throughout his career, Richard has stayed involved in numerous research projects and previously served as a professor at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (now Rutgers University). Richard went on to become the director of the first cardiac catheterization and interventional laboratory in Jersey City and has extensive training in vein treatments.

To ensure he continues staying up to date with the latest research and techniques, Richard maintains his board memberships. He’s board certified through the American Board of Internal Medicine in cardiovascular disease and interventional cardiology.

Being fluent in English,  Spanish, and Tamil gives Richard the opportunity to communicate with patients from diverse cultural backgrounds. Richard is currently accepting new patients.